Author: novelconjugates

Chemical ligation of oligonucleotides using an electrophilic phosphorothioester

We developed a new approach for chemical ligation of oligonucleotides using the electrophilic phosphorothioester (EPT) group. A nucleophilic phosphorothioate group on oligonucleotides was converted into the EPT group by treatment with Sanger’s reagent (1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene). EPT oligonucleotides can be isolated, stored frozen, and used for the ligation reaction. The reaction of the EPT oligonucleotide and an amino-modified oligonucleotide took place without any extra reagents at pH 7.0–8.0 at room temperature, and resulted in a ligation product with a phosphoramidate bond with a 39–85% yield. This method has potential uses in biotechnology and chemical biology. (Nucleic Acids Res. 2017 Jul 7; 45(12): 7042–7048.)

Fragment-based solid-phase assembly of oligonucleotide conjugates with peptide and polyethylene glycol ligands

Ligand conjugation to oligonucleotides is an attractive strategy for enhancing the therapeutic potential of antisense and siRNA agents by inferring properties such as improved cellular uptake or better pharmacokinetic properties. Disulfide linkages enable dissociation of ligands and oligonucleotides in reducing environments found in endosomal compartments after cellular uptake. Solution-phase fragment coupling procedures for producing oligonucleotide conjugates are often tedious, produce moderate yields and reaction byproducts are frequently difficult to remove. We have developed an improved method for solid-phase coupling of ligands to oligonucleotides via disulfides directly after solid-phase synthesis. A 2′-thiol introduced using a modified nucleotide building block was orthogonally deprotected on the controlled pore glass solid support with N-butylphosphine. Oligolysine peptides and a short monodisperse ethylene glycol chain were successfully coupled to the deprotected thiol. Cleavage from the resin and full removal of oligonucleotide protection groups were achieved using methanolic ammonia. After standard desalting, and without further purification, homogenous conjugates were obtained as demonstrated by HPLC, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. The attachment of both amphiphilic and cationic ligands proves the versatility of the conjugation procedure. An antisense oligonucleotide conjugate with hexalysine showed pronounced gene silencing in a cell culture tumor model in the absence of a transfection reagent and the corresponding ethylene glycol conjugate resulted in down regulation of the target gene to nearly 50% after naked application.(European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.,Volume 121, 4 October 2016, Pages 132-142.)

Solid-phase synthesis of 5′-triantennary N-acetylgalactosamine conjugated antisense oligonucleotides using phosphoramidite chemistry

A convenient solid-phase synthetic method was developed for assembling a triantennary N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) cluster on the 5′-end of antisense oligonucleotide using phosphoramidite chemistry. Conjugation of the 5′-triantennary GalNAc cluster improved potency of the 14 mer ASO 7-fold in mice and more than 50 fold in hepatocytes. The synthetic approach described in this Letter simplifies the synthesis of 5′-triantennary GalNAc cluster conjugated ASOs and helps understand the structure–activity relationship for targeting hepatocytes with oligonucleotide therapeutics.(Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters.,Volume 25, Issue 19, 1 October 2015, Pages 4127-4130.)

MMT, Npeoc-protected spermine, a valuable synthon for the solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotide oligospermine conjugates via guanidine linkers

Solid phase spermine oligomerization via guanidine linkers was achieved using activated thiourea coupling reaction with primary amino group. Disymmetric spermine synthon was efficiently synthesised in eight steps from spermine. MMT group was used as coupling monitor and resulting oligomeric spermines were conjugated to oligonucleotides. (Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry., Volume 19, Issue 6, 15 March 2011, Pages 1972-1977.)

Amphiphilic hyaluronic acid derivatives toward the design of micelles for the sustained delivery of hydrophobic drugs

The idea of this study was to combine hyaluronic acid (HA) viscosupplementation and a local/controlled delivery of a hydrophobic anti-inflammatory drug. To this aim, we investigated the ability of an octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified HA (OSA-HA), to act as a solubility enhancer and as a platform for slow release of hydrophobic drug(s). This novel HA derivative could act as a viscosupplementation agent and, for this reason, a rheological study was conducted along with calorimetric analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results revealed that the ability of HA to sequester water is enhanced by the introduction of lipophilic functions within HA molecules, resulting in a decrease of the fraction of free water able to freeze compared to the unmodified HA. Moreover, OSA-HA solutions appear to be an appropriate tool to be used in viscosupplementation therapy owing to their suitable viscoelastic features. Our results indicate that OSA-HA is able to self-assemble into micelles, load a hydrophobic drug and release the active molecule with controlled kinetics. In particular, the analysis of release profiles showed that, in all cases, drug diffusion into the gel is faster compared to gel/drug dissolution, being the dissolution contribution more relevant as the OSA-HA concentration increases.(Carbohydr Polym. 2014 Feb 15;102:110-6)

Preparation and characterization of octenyl succinic anhydride modified agarose derivative

Agarose was successfully modified with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) and the factors affecting OSA modifying process were studied. The degree of substitution (DS) could be regulated from 0.02 to 0.21 by changing the reaction condition, simultaneously the molecular weight of the OSA-agarose (OSAG) varied from 342 kD to 483 kD. FT-IR spectrum of the OSAG at 1734 cm-1 and 1576 cm-1 revealed characteristic absorption peaks of the ester carbonyl groups (CO) and the carboxylate (RCOO-), respectively. NMR spectrum of the OSAG suggested the main substitution occurred at the C-2 in the d-galactopyranose. The SEM image of agarose showed the porous network structure became dense and the fiber became thin after OSA modification. Compared with original agarose, the prepared OSAG showed novel physical properties including low gelling and melting temperature and high transparency. The remaining gelation ability and newly introduced amphiphilic character anticipate potential application as functional polysaccharide materials in foods. (Food Chem. 2019 May 1;279:30-39.)

Superior anti-neoplastic activities of triacontanol-PEG conjugate: synthesis, characterization and biological evaluations

No Comments

Triacontanol (TA, C30H62O), abundantly present in plant cuticle waxes and bee waxes, has been found to display promising anti-neoplastic potentials. As a long chain fatty alcohol, TA possesses limited aqueous solubility, which hinders its medicinal application. To overcome its solubility barrier, a polymer prodrug was synthesized through attaching TA to poly ethylene glycol (PEG), using succinic acid as a linker with bifunctional amide and ester bonds. Anti-neoplastic effects of PEG-TA were assessed in LoVo and MCF7 cells, anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities were subsequently confirmed in mouse xenograft model. Encouragingly, PEG-TA possessed selective anti-cancer ability. It did not exhibit significant cytotoxicity on normal cells. Mechanistic examination revealed inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation, suppression on matrix degradation enzyme and down-regulation of angiogenic signaling might contribute to its anti-malignant effects. Pharmacokinetics clearly indicated PEGylated TA (named as mPEG2K-SA-TA) substantially enhanced TA delivery with increased plasma exposure (19,791 vs. 336.25 ng·mL−1·h−1,p < .001), mean residence time (8.46 vs. 2.95 h, p < .001) and elimination half-life (7.78 vs. 2.57 h, p < .001) compared to those of original TA. Moreover, mPEG2K-SA-TA appeared to be safe in preliminary toxicological assessment. PEGylated TA also emerged as a functional carrier to deliver hydrophobic chemotherapeutic agents, since it readily self-assembled to micelles in aqueous solution with a low critical micelle concentration (CMC, 19.1 µg·mL−1). Conclusively, PEG-TA conjugate displayed superior anti-neoplastic activities and low toxicity, as well as facilitated the delivery of other hydrophobic agents, which appeared to be an innovative strategy for cancer therapy.(Drug Deliv. 2018; 25(1): 1546–1559.)

Self-assembled nanoparticles based on chondroitin sulfate-deoxycholic acid conjugates for docetaxel delivery: Effect of degree of substitution of deoxycholic acid

No Comments

Hydrophobically-modified polymers based on chondroitin sulfate with different degree of substitution (DS) of deoxycholic acid (DOCA) were developed for docetaxel delivery. Chondroitin sulfate-deoxycholic acid (CSAD) bioconjugates were synthesized via the linker of adipic dihydrazide by amide bond. They were characterized with spherical shape, mean diameter of around 165.2 nm and negative zeta potential (⿿14.87 to ⿿20.53 mV). An increase of DOCA DS reduced size of nanoparticles, while increasing drug loading efficiency. Drug release in vitro showed a triphasic sustained pattern and higher accumulative drug release percentage was observed with increased DS of DOCA on polymer. Self-assemblies with higher DS also had enhanced internalization of nanoparticles and stronger cytotoxicity at the cellular level. The self-assemble nanoparticles demonstrate to be excellent targeting drug delivery systems and the desired therapeutics can be achieved via the alteration of DS.(Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. Volume 146, 1 October 2016, Pages 235-244.)