Product Name: Ibuprofen-Hyp(Spermine)-Gly
IUPAC Name: ((2S,4R)-4-(((3-((4-((3-aminopropyl)amino)butyl)amino)propyl)carbamoyl)oxy)-1-(2-(4-isobutylphenyl)propanoyl)pyrrolidine-2-carbonyl)glycine,
Description: Pro-Hyp and Hyp-Gly, two major food-derived collagen peptides in human blood, enhance proliferation of primary mouse skin fibroblasts cultured on collagen gel and stimulate synthesis of hyaluronic acid in those cells. Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, spermine and related structures) are natural compounds ubiquitously distributed in eukaryotic cells and essential for growth and differentiation. Spermine exists in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells with concentrations in the μM range and is known to be present in mitochondria because spermine binds to the mitochondrial membrane. In fact, spermine plays a metabolic role in mitochondria by stimulating the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and by activating citrate synthase in the citric acid cycle. In a parallel study, molecular dynamics simulations and NMR data showed that the IbKTP-NH2 tandem adopts a preferential “stretched” conformation in lipid bilayers and micelles, with the simulations indicating that the Ib moiety is anchored in the hydrophobic core, which explains the improved partition of IbKTP-NH2 to membranes and the permeability of lipid bilayers to this conjugate relative to KTP-NH2.