Phospholipids are essential cellular components of prokaryotes and eukaryotes and are a major component of biological membranes. Furthermore, phospholipids function as signaling molecules and as substrates for the biosynthesis of storage lipids. The phospholipids phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) are abundant in plant tissues. In particular, the phosphorylcholine polar group is an electrically neutral head group. Bio-inspired phosphorylcholine modification on material surface has shown great promise in constructing biocompatible materials. Phosphatidylserine(PS) is required for healthy nerve cell membranes and myelin. Exogenous PS is absorbed efficiently in humans, crosses the blood–brain barrier, and safely slows, halts, or reverses biochemical alterations and structural deterioration in nerve cells.
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