Category: Chemistry

Maslinic acid derivatives induce significant apoptosis in b16f10 murine melanoma cells

Maslinic acid (2α,3β-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid), a natural dihydroxylated pentacyclic triterpene acid isolated from olive-pressing residues, has been investigated together with some of its derivatives regarding the induction of apoptosis in B16F10 melanoma cells. Some of the compounds tested are described in this work, but others come from previous studies. Ten of these derivatives induce over 80% of apoptosis, clearly promoting cell death in B16F10 melanoma. By contrast, the induction cell death through necrosis was very slightly significant with these compounds. These results indicate that maslinic acid derivatives are promising chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. (European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. Volume 46, Issue 12, December 2011, Pages 5991-6001.)

Synthesis of acyl oleanolic acid-uracil conjugates and their anti-tumor activity

Oleanolic acid, which can be isolated from many foods and medicinal plants, has been reported to possess diverse biological activities. It has been found that the acylation of the hydroxyl groups of the A-ring in the triterpene skeleton of oleanolic acid could be favorable for biological activities. The pyrimidinyl group has been constructed in many new compounds in various anti-tumor studies. Results: Five acyl oleanolic acid-uracil conjugates were synthesized. Most of the IC50 values of these conjugates were lower than 10.0 μM, and some of them were even under 0.1 μM. Cytotoxicity selectivity detection revealed that conjugate 4c exhibited low cytotoxicity towards the normal human liver cell line HL-7702. Further studies revealed that 4c clearly possessed apoptosis inducing effects, could arrest the Hep-G2 cell line in the G1 phase, induce late-stage apoptosis, and activate effector caspase-3/9 to trigger apoptosis. Conclusions: Conjugates of five different acyl OA derivatives with uracil were synthesized and identified as possessing high selectivity toward tumor cell lines. These conjugates could induce apoptosis in Hep-G2 cells by triggering caspase-3/9 activity. (Chem Cent J. 2016; 10: 69.)

Synthesis and in vitro antiproliferative evaluation of PEGylated triterpene acids

A set of PEGylated derivatives of oleanolic and maslinic acids has been semi-synthesised, attaching ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol or tetraethylene glycol to the C-28 carboxyl group of these natural triterpenes and some derivatives. Another set of PEGylated derivatives has been semi-synthesised by connecting the same four ethylene glycols to the hydroxyl groups of the A ring of these triterpenic acids, through a carbonate linker, by reaction with trichloromethyl chloroformate. The aqueous solubility of some of these PEGylated derivatives has been compared with that of maslinic acid. The cytotoxic effects of 28 triterpenic PEGylated derivatives in three cancer-cell lines (B16-F10, HT29, and Hep G2) have been assayed. The best results have been achieved with the HT29 cell line, and specifically with the oleanolic acid derivatives having ethylene glycol or tetraethylene glycol attached to the C-28 carboxyl group, which are approximately 27-fold more effective than their natural precursor. Eight PEGylated derivatives have been selected to compare the cytotoxicity results in the HT29 cancer-cell line with those of a non-tumour cell line of the same tissue (IEC-18), four of which were less cytotoxic in the non-tumour cell line. These compounds showed apoptotic effects on treated cells, with percentages of total apoptosis between 20% and 53%, relative to control, at 72 h and IC50 concentration, and between 29% to 62%, relative to control, for the same time and IC80 concentration. We have also found that with the treatment of these compounds in HT29 cancer cells, cell-cycle arrest occurred in the G0/G1 phase. Finally, we have also studied changes in mitochondrial membrane potential during apoptosis of HT29 cancer cells, and the results suggest an activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway for these compounds. (Fitoterapia. Volume 120, July 2017, Pages 25-40.)

Solid-Phase Library Synthesis of Bi-Functional Derivatives of Oleanolic and Maslinic Acids

A wide set of 264 compounds has been semisynthesized with high yields and purities. These compounds have been obtained through easy synthetic processes based on a solid-phase combinatorial methodology. All the members of this library have one central core of a natural pentacyclic triterpene (oleanolic or maslinic acid) and differ by 6 amino acids, coupled with the carboxyl group at C-28 of the triterpenoid skeleton, and by 10 different acyl groups attached to the hydroxyl groups of the A-ring of these molecules. According to the literature on the outstanding and promising pharmacological activities of other similar terpene derivatives, some of these compounds have been tested for their cytotoxic effects on the proliferation of three cancer cell lines: B16–F10, HT29, and Hep G2. In general, we have found that around 70% of the compounds tested show cytotoxicity in all three of the cell lines selected; around 60% of the cytotoxic compounds are more effective than their corresponding precursors, that is, oleanolic (OA) or maslinic (MA) acids; and nearly 50% of the cytotoxic derivatives have IC50 values between 2- to 320-fold lower than their corresponding precursor (OA or MA). (ACS Comb. Sci., 2014, 16 (8), pp 428–447.)

Diamine and PEGylated-diamine conjugates of triterpenic acids as potential anticancer agents

A set of 18 amide derivatives of oleanolic or maslinic acid has been semi-synthesised. Twelve were diamine conjugates at C-28 of these triterpenic acids and the other six were PEGylated-diamine derivatives. The cytotoxic effects of these 18 triterpenic derivatives in three cancer-cell lines (B16-F10, HT29, and Hep G2) have been assayed, and have been compared to three non-tumour cell lines of the same or a similar tissue (HPF, IEC-18, and WRL68). The cell viability percentages for the non-tumour HPF line for almost all diamine conjugates of the tested triterpenic acids ranged from 81% to 94%. The best cytotoxic results were achieved with the diamine conjugates of oleanolic or maslinic acid with the shortest and the longest diamine chain (IC50 values from 0.76 μM to 1.76 μM), on the B16-F10 cell line, being between 140- and 20-fold more effective than their corresponding precursors. Four diamine conjugates of these triterpenic acids showed apoptotic effects on treated cells of the B16-F10 line, with total apoptosis rates, relative to control, of between 73% and 90%. The DNA-histogram analysis revealed that all compounds tested produced cell-cycle arrest in B16-F10 cells, increasing the number of these cells in the S phase. All the compounds analysed, except one, did not cause changes in mitochondrial-membrane potential during apoptosis of the B16-F10 cancer cells, suggesting an activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway for these compounds. (Eur J Med Chem. 2018 Mar 25;148:325-336.)

Novel 3-phenylcoumarin-lipoic acid conjugates as multi-functional agents for potential treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

New series of triazole-containing 3-phenylcoumarin-lipoic acid conjugates were designed as multi-functional agents for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. The target compounds 4a-o were synthesized via the azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction and their biological activities were primarily evaluated in terms of neuroprotection against H2O2-induced cell death in PC12 cells and AChE/BuChE inhibition. The promising compounds 4j and 4i containing four carbons spacer were selected for further biological evaluations. Based on the obtained results, the benzocoumarin derivative 4j with IC50 value of 7.3 µM was the most potent AChE inhibitor and displayed good inhibition toward intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). This compound with antioxidant and metal chelating ability showed also protective effect on cell injury induced by Aβ1-42 in SH-SY5Y cells. Although the 8-methoxycoumarin analog 4i was slightly less active than 4j against AChE, but displayed higher protection ability against H2O2-induced cell death in PC12 and could significantly block Aβ-aggregation. The results suggested that the prototype compounds 4i and 4j might be promising multi-functional agents for the further development of the disease-modifying treatments of Alzheimer’s disease. ( 2018 Sep;79:223-234.)

Synthesis of peptide-protein conjugates using N-succinimidyl carbamate chemistry

Peptide-protein conjugates are useful tools in different fields of research as, for instance, the development of vaccines and drugs or for studying biological mechanisms, to cite only few applications. N-Succinimidyl carbamate (NSC) chemistry has been scarcely used in this area. We show that unprotected peptides, featuring one lysine residue within their sequences, can be converted in good yield into NSC derivatives by reaction with disuccinimidylcarbonate (DSC). No hydrolysis of the NSC group was observed during RP-HPLC purification, lyophilization, or storage. NSC peptides reacted efficiently within minutes with lysozyme used as model protein. To illustrate usefulness of the method consisting of the synthesis of a peptide-protein conjugate of biological interest, a NSC peptide derived from a peptide substrate for tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TS) was synthesized and ligated to receptor-binding nontoxic B-subunit of Shiga toxin (STxB). Immunofluorescence studies showed the intracellular delivery of the TS-STxB conjugate and its ability to circulate to the Golgi as the native STxB protein. Moreover, we demonstrate that the TS label could be sulfated by tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases present in the Golgi. Thus, NSC chemistry permitted rapid synthesis of a peptide-protein conjugate worthwhile for studying the transport of proteins from the plasma membrane to the Golgi. The second part of this article describes a more general method for synthesizing peptide-protein conjugates without any limitation of the peptide sequence. The conjugates were assembled by combining NSC chemistry and alpha-oxo semicarbazone ligation. To this end, a glyoxylyl NSC peptide was synthesized and reacted with lysozyme. The glyoxylyl groups on the protein were then reacted with a semicarbazide peptide to produce the target peptide-protein conjugate. Both reactions, namely, urea bond formation and alpha-oxo semicarbazone ligation, were carried at pH 8.0 using a one-pot procedure.(Bioconjug Chem. 2010 Feb 17;21(2):219-28. )

Amino alcohol fused Spirochromone conjugates

A series of 21 new amino alcohol fused Spirochromone conjugates have been synthesized, characterized with analytical data and evaluated their antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (virulent strain H37Rv) in vitro. Some of the compounds exerted significant inhibition, in particular, compound 4f found to be the most potent derivative exhibiting MIC = 3.13 μg/mL.