acne.org buy accutane online The blood-brain-barrier (BBB), present in brain capillaries, constitutes an essential barrier mechanism for normal functioning and development of the brain. The presence of tight junctions between adjacent endothelial cells restricts permeability and movement of molecules between extracellular fluid and plasma. The protein complexes that control cell-cell attachment also polarize cellular membrane, so that it can be divided into luminal (blood-facing) and abluminal (brain) sides, and each solute that enters/leaves the brain must cross both membranes. Several amino acid (AA) transport systems with different distributions on both sides of the BBB have been described. In a broad sense, there are at least five different systems of facilitative transporters and all of them are found in the luminal membrane. Some of these transporters are very specific for a small group of substrates and are located exclusively on the luminal side of the BBB. However, the two major facilitative carriers, system L and system y+, are located in both membranes, although asymmetrically. The position of these Na+-independent transporters ensures AA availability in the brain and also its bidirectional transport across the endothelial cells. On the other hand, there are several Na+-dependent transport systems that transport AAs against its concentration gradient together with the movement of Na+ ions. The majority of these active transporters are present exclusively at the abluminal membrane and are responsible for AA efflux from the brain into the endothelial cells. Since they are Na+-coupled, the sodium pump Na+/K+-ATPase is also highly expressed on this abluminal side of the BBB. Once inside the cell, the facilitative transporters located in the luminal membranes mediate export from the endothelial cell to the blood. In summary, the polarized distribution of these transport systems between the luminal and abluminal membranes, and the fact that more than one transporter may carry the same substrate, ensures supply and excretion of AAs in and out of the brain, thereby controlling its homeostasis and proper function. (Front Physiol. 2020; 11: 973.)
Category: Amino acid/peptide conjugates
buy Pregabalin 75 mg The conjugation of different amino acids/peptides to various biologically active compounds has fetched the outstanding results as are very promising drug candidates.
TLR2 Agonistic Small Molecules: Detailed Structure–Activity Relationship, Applications, and Future Prospects
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in microbial species. Among the various TLRs, TLR2 has a special place due to its ability to sense the widest repertoire of PAMPs owing to its heterodimerization with either TLR1 or TLR6, broadening its ligand diversity against pathogens. Various scaffolds are reported to activate TLR2, which include naturally occurring lipoproteins, synthetic lipopeptides, and small heterocyclic molecules. We described a detailed SAR in TLR2 agonistic scaffolds and also covered the design and chemistry for the conjugation of TLR2 agonists to antigens, carbohydrates, polymers, and fluorophores. The approaches involved in delivery of TLR2 agonists such as lipidation of antigen, conjugation to polymers, phosphonic acids, and other linkers to achieve surface adsorption, liposomal formulation, and encapsulating nanoparticles are elaborated. The crystal structure analysis and computational modeling are also included with the structural features that facilitate TLR2 activation. (J. Med. Chem. 2021, 64, 1, 233–278)
In this study, the residue-selective modification of proteins with polymers at arginine residues is reported. The difficulty in modifying arginine residues lies in the fact that they are less reactive than lysine residues. Consequently, typical chemo-selective reactions which employ “kinetic” selectivity (active esters, Michael addition, etc.) cannot be used to target these residues. The chemistry exploited herein relies on “thermodynamic” selectivity to achieve selective modification of arginine residues. ω-Methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) bearing an α-oxo-aldehyde group was synthesized and used to demonstrate the selective modification of lysozyme at arginine residues. In addition, the optimization of reaction conditions for coupling as well as the stability of the formed adduct toward dilution, toward a nucleophilic buffer, and toward acidification are reported. It was concluded that this approach is a convenient, mild, selective, and catalyst-free method for protein modification. (Biomacromolecules 2011, 12, 2, 482–493)