Day: November 2, 2020

The role of lipid metabolism in aging, lifespan regulation, and age‐related disease

No Comments

An emerging body of data suggests that lipid metabolism has an important role to play in the aging process. Indeed, a plethora of dietary, pharmacological, genetic, and surgical lipid‐related interventions extend lifespan in nematodes, fruit flies, mice, and rats. For example, the impairment of genes involved in ceramide and sphingolipid synthesis extends lifespan in both worms and flies. The overexpression of fatty acid amide hydrolase or lysosomal lipase prolongs life in Caenorhabditis elegans, while the overexpression of diacylglycerol lipase enhances longevity in both C. elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. The surgical removal of adipose tissue extends lifespan in rats, and increased expression of apolipoprotein D enhances survival in both flies and mice. Mouse lifespan can be additionally extended by the genetic deletion of diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, treatment with the steroid 17‐α‐estradiol, or a ketogenic diet. Moreover, deletion of the phospholipase A2 receptor improves various healthspan parameters in a progeria mouse model. Genome‐wide association studies have found several lipid‐related variants to be associated with human aging. For example, the epsilon 2 and epsilon 4 alleles of apolipoprotein E are associated with extreme longevity and late‐onset neurodegenerative disease, respectively. In humans, blood triglyceride levels tend to increase, while blood lysophosphatidylcholine levels tend to decrease with age. Specific sphingolipid and phospholipid blood profiles have also been shown to change with age and are associated with exceptional human longevity. These data suggest that lipid‐related interventions may improve human healthspan and that blood lipids likely represent a rich source of human aging biomarkers.(Aging Cell. 2019 Dec; 18(6): e13048.)