Month: October 2018

A calorimetric evaluation of the interaction of amphiphilic prodrugs of idebenone with a biomembrane model

Lipoamino acids (LAA) are useful promoieties to modify physicochemical properties of drugs, namely lipophilicity and amphiphilicity. The resulting membrane-like character of drug–LAA conjugates can increase the absorption profile of drugs through cell membranes and biological barriers. To show the role of amphiphilicity with respect to lipophilicity in the interaction of drugs with biomembranes, in the present study we evaluated the mode of such an interaction of lipophilic conjugates of LAA with the antioxidant drug idebenone (IDE). DSC analysis and transfer kinetic studies were carried out using dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) multilamellar liposomes (MLVs) as a model. For comparison, two esters of IDE with alkanoic acids were synthesized and included in the analysis. The experimental results indicate that based on their different structure, IDE–LAA conjugates interacted at different levels with respect to pure IDE with DMPC bilayers. In particular, a progressive penetration inside the vesicles was observed upon incubation of IDE–LAA compounds with empty liposomes. The enhanced amphiphilicity of the drug due to the LAA moieties caused more complex interactions with DMPC bilayers, compared to those registered with the native drug or IDE alkanoate esters.(J Colloid Interface Sci. 2006 Jul 15;299(2):626-35.)

Novel derivatives of abietic and dehydroabietic acid

Abietic and dehydroabietic acid are interesting diterpenes with a highly diverse repertoire of associated bioactivities. They have, among others, shown antibacterial and antifungal activity, potentially valuable in the struggle against the increasing antimicrobial resistance and imminent antibiotic shortage. In this paper, we describe the synthesis of a set of 9 abietic and dehydroabietic acid derivatives containing amino acid side chains and their in vitro antimicrobial profiling against a panel of human pathogenic microbial strains. Furthermore, their in vitro cytotoxicity against mammalian cells was evaluated. The experimental results showed that the most promising compound was 10 [methyl N-(abiet-8,11,13-trien-18-yl)-d-serinate], with an MIC90 of 60 μg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and 8 μg/mL against methicillin-resistant S. aureusStaphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus mitis. The IC50 value for compound 10 against Balb/c 3T3 cells was 45 μg/mL. ( 2017 Jan 1;25(1):132-137.)

Galloyl-RGD as a new cosmetic ingredient


The cosmetics market has rapidly increased over the last years. For example, in 2011 it reached 242.8 billion US dollars, which was a 3.9% increase compared to 2010. There have been many recent trials aimed at finding the functional ingredients for new cosmetics. Gallic acid is a phytochemical derived from various herbs, and has anti-fungal, anti-viral, and antioxidant properties. Although phytochemicals are useful as cosmetic ingredients, they have a number of drawbacks, such as thermal stability, residence time in the skin, and permeability through the dermal layer. To overcome these problems, we considered conjugation of gallic acid with a peptide.


We synthesized galloyl-RGD, which represents a conjugate of gallic acid and the peptide RGD, purified it by HPLC and characterized by MALDI-TOF with the aim of using it as a new cosmetic ingredient. Thermal stability of galloyl-RGD was tested at alternating temperatures (consecutive 4°C, 20°C, or 40°C for 8 h each) on days 2, 21, 41, and 61. Galloyl-RGD was relatively safe to HaCaT keratinocytes, as their viability after 48 h incubation with 500 ppm galloyl-RGD was 93.53%. In the group treated with 50 ppm galloyl-RGD, 85.0% of free radicals were removed, whereas 1000 ppm galloyl-RGD suppressed not only L-DOPA formation (43.8%) but also L-DOPA oxidation (54.4%).


Galloyl-RGD is a promising candidate for a cosmetic ingredient. (. 2014; 15: 18.)

Novel 3-phenylcoumarin-lipoic acid conjugates as multi-functional agents for potential treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

New series of triazole-containing 3-phenylcoumarin-lipoic acid conjugates were designed as multi-functional agents for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. The target compounds 4a-o were synthesized via the azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction and their biological activities were primarily evaluated in terms of neuroprotection against H2O2-induced cell death in PC12 cells and AChE/BuChE inhibition. The promising compounds 4j and 4i containing four carbons spacer were selected for further biological evaluations. Based on the obtained results, the benzocoumarin derivative 4j with IC50 value of 7.3 µM was the most potent AChE inhibitor and displayed good inhibition toward intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). This compound with antioxidant and metal chelating ability showed also protective effect on cell injury induced by Aβ1-42 in SH-SY5Y cells. Although the 8-methoxycoumarin analog 4i was slightly less active than 4j against AChE, but displayed higher protection ability against H2O2-induced cell death in PC12 and could significantly block Aβ-aggregation. The results suggested that the prototype compounds 4i and 4j might be promising multi-functional agents for the further development of the disease-modifying treatments of Alzheimer’s disease. ( 2018 Sep;79:223-234.)